L’orizzonte metacritico della filosofia trascendentale nella «Metakritik zur Kritik der reinen Vernunft» e nel saggio «Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit»

This entry is part 4 of 33 in the series Vol 2-2017

Abstract: This article explores the meaning of «transcedental philosophy» in Kant and Herder. The focus is on the metacritic horizon of a «philosophy of philosophy», defined as a synthetic creative knowledge that researches the «conditions of possibility» (Bedingungen der Möglichkeit) and the principles of the subjective forms of human knowledge. In this perspective, two essays are analyzed: Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit (1774) and Metakritik zur Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1799). The Metacritique is directed against the theoretical philosophy of Kritk der reinen Vernunft. The first part of this paper, from section 1 (La filosofia trascendentale e l’orizzonte «metacritico») to section 6 (L’appercezione pura e lo schematismo trascendentale), examines the meaning of a «metacritic philosophy» in relation to the limits of «pure reason»; the followings terms are analyzed: «menschliche Natur», «Grenzen der Vernunft», «Bedingungen der Möglichkeit», «reine Apperzeption», «ursprüngliche Apperzeption», «transzendentale Apperzeption» and «transzendentale Schematismus». The second part of the article, from section 7 (Sulla soglia) to section 12 (La libertà creativa: la natura umana e la creatività) is devoted to Herder’s Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit and focuses on the following terms: «Logos», «Vernunft», «Bildung», «Lebenswelt», «Natur», «Anschauung», «Freiheit», «limen», «subjectivity» and «creativity».

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L’ombra e le situazioni-limite in Karl Jaspers e Carl Gustav Jung

This entry is part 2 of 31 in the series Vol 1-2016

Abstract: The concept of “limit-situation” (Grenzsituation) is developed by Karl Jaspers primarily in Psychologie der Weltanschauungen and in Existenzerhellung, which is the second volume of Philosophie (1932). In later works, the concept of “basic situation” (Grundsituation) also comes to the fore: this concept is not historically conditioned, rather it characterizes human existence as it has always been, namely, as a “rupture in being”, a searching for unity that is destined to fail time and again. “Basic situations” denote the limits that are common for all persons; the limits against which the supposed wholeness and unity of Dasein crashes. To these belong especially the following situations: having to die, having to suffer, having to fight, being at the mercy of chance, and facing the inevitability of guilt. These “basic situations” become “limit-situations” if they transform from simple generalities into distressing experiences for the individual. According to Carl Gustav Jung, it is possible to define a semantic connection between “limit-situations” and the “dark side” of our shadow. «Everyone carries a shadow, and the less it is embodied in the individual’s conscious life, the blacker and denser it is». The shadow is composed of the dark and unknown aspects of our personality: it describes the “hidden side” of the human psyche that we would rather not acknowledge. As Dostoevskij, Jung defines the shadow the “underground of our soul”.

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