Fichte: la fondazione genetica del trascendentalismo kantiano

This entry is part 9 of 33 in the series Vol 2-2017

Abstract: The aim of this essay is to show Fichte’s foundation of the transcendental philosophy by the concept of genesis (or intellectual intuition). According to the latest studies of the Twentieth Century, Fichte’s philosophy is a model of a transcendental philosophy (not an idealism) that re-defines the core and the principal thesis of Kantianism. Our exposition argues this refoundation of Kant’s transcendentalism drawing attention to the central role of the concept of genesis, that is the thought’s act of concentration on itself. By this act according to Fichte we can have experience of the essence of our thought, discovering the principle of the whole human experience, the principle that is the essential unity of being and consciousness: the I (also called autoactivity, or Absolute). Fichte’s transcendentalism presents this discovery as an intellectual evidence that makes possible a scientific foundation of knowledge, that he illustrates in his Wissenschaftslehre. This essay analyses Fichte’s philosophical foundation in relation with Kantian philosophy, as it often occurs in Fichte’s works. We start this inquiry explaining the typical Fichte’s reception of Kant’s theory in comparison with the reception of other important philosophers of the time (especially Reinhold and Schulze). Then we focus our analysis on Wissenschaftslehre 1804-II, one of the most important Fichte’s explanation of transcendental foundation of knowledge by genesis’ concept and method. Eventually, we complete our study including a general view of Fichte’s genetic-transcendental foundation of moral by comparing it with Kant’s moral philosophy, explaining the role of Fichte’s concepts of pure will and duty (Sollen).

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