Abstract: Today, Spanish political philosophy provides very interesting keyes to understand some of the contemporary political processes as the decline of the West, Europe’s spiritual crisis, the weakness of liberalism and democracy. This paper will try to describe theoretical themes and literature suggestions about the shadow of history thanks to the original thought of some of 20th century most famous philosophers from Spain. First of all Miguel de Unamuno, the father of “tragic sense of life” who proposes an “agonic” philosophical approach to carry better sufferings and the problems of consciousness; then, we will talk about Ortega y Gasset his vital reason and particular way of liberalism; then, Xavier Zubiri, a very frequently forgotten philosopher who shakes up the ontology and epistemology by a new definition of reality; in closing, we will consider Eugenio Trías input on the philosophical analysis of power.
Abstract: The concept of “limit-situation” (Grenzsituation) is developed by Karl Jaspers primarily in Psychologie der Weltanschauungen and in Existenzerhellung, which is the second volume of Philosophie (1932). In later works, the concept of “basic situation” (Grundsituation) also comes to the fore: this concept is not historically conditioned, rather it characterizes human existence as it has always been, namely, as a “rupture in being”, a searching for unity that is destined to fail time and again. “Basic situations” denote the limits that are common for all persons; the limits against which the supposed wholeness and unity of Dasein crashes. To these belong especially the following situations: having to die, having to suffer, having to fight, being at the mercy of chance, and facing the inevitability of guilt. These “basic situations” become “limit-situations” if they transform from simple generalities into distressing experiences for the individual. According to Carl Gustav Jung, it is possible to define a semantic connection between “limit-situations” and the “dark side” of our shadow. «Everyone carries a shadow, and the less it is embodied in the individual’s conscious life, the blacker and denser it is». The shadow is composed of the dark and unknown aspects of our personality: it describes the “hidden side” of the human psyche that we would rather not acknowledge. As Dostoevskij, Jung defines the shadow the “underground of our soul”.