La «dialettica trascendentale» e la «dialettica naturale» della ragion pura

This entry is part 5 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: Transcendental dialectic is not the art of producing dogmatically illusion, but a critique of understanding and reason in regard to their «hyperphysical use». Transcendental dialectic is the endeavour of exposing the illusion involved in attempting to use the categories and principles of the understanding beyond the bounds of phenomena and possible experience. «All our knowledge begins with sense, proceeds thence to understanding, and ends with reason». Reason is both a logical and a transcendental faculty. As a logical faculty, it produces so-called mediated conclusions through abstractions, as a transcendental faculty, it creates conceptions and contains a priori cognitions whose object cannot be given empirically. Our reason has a structural and natural tendency to move beyond the realm of experience into the unknowable. Whenever reason attempts to move beyond possible experience, it falls into error and illusion. Transcendental illusions are not causal, but natural: they are neither dependent on the will not avoidable. The transcendental dialectics is a critique of such illusions. It aims to show the limits and transgressions of reason in order to avoid unscientific conclusions and guard against metaphysical dogmatism.

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L’orizzonte metacritico della filosofia trascendentale nella «Metakritik zur Kritik der reinen Vernunft» e nel saggio «Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit»

This entry is part 4 of 33 in the series Vol 2-2017

Abstract: This article explores the meaning of «transcedental philosophy» in Kant and Herder. The focus is on the metacritic horizon of a «philosophy of philosophy», defined as a synthetic creative knowledge that researches the «conditions of possibility» (Bedingungen der Möglichkeit) and the principles of the subjective forms of human knowledge. In this perspective, two essays are analyzed: Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit (1774) and Metakritik zur Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1799). The Metacritique is directed against the theoretical philosophy of Kritk der reinen Vernunft. The first part of this paper, from section 1 (La filosofia trascendentale e l’orizzonte «metacritico») to section 6 (L’appercezione pura e lo schematismo trascendentale), examines the meaning of a «metacritic philosophy» in relation to the limits of «pure reason»; the followings terms are analyzed: «menschliche Natur», «Grenzen der Vernunft», «Bedingungen der Möglichkeit», «reine Apperzeption», «ursprüngliche Apperzeption», «transzendentale Apperzeption» and «transzendentale Schematismus». The second part of the article, from section 7 (Sulla soglia) to section 12 (La libertà creativa: la natura umana e la creatività) is devoted to Herder’s Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit and focuses on the following terms: «Logos», «Vernunft», «Bildung», «Lebenswelt», «Natur», «Anschauung», «Freiheit», «limen», «subjectivity» and «creativity».

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