Abstract: This paper maps the parallel construction of space and identity in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, a play in which geographical spaces clearly acquire semantic and symbolic value. The interactions between these radically opposed topographical spaces and the characters who inhabit them are key to an insightful geocritical reading of characterisation within play. Rome is a place of politics, power and progress while Egypt is characterized by opulence, luxury and pleasure – Octavia and Cleopatra, embody these places. The construction of Antony, through his inhabitation of these parallel spaces and his relationships with these women and the places they represent, both as limen and limes, sheds new light on the play as a whole.
Abstract: The tradition of fantastic literature and ghost stories has been built, over the two and a half centuries that separate us from the publication of Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764), on the basis of the presence of a set of prototypical elements of the genre: the nocturnal and/or gloomy atmospheres, the almost permanent darkness, the death of some of the key characters of the story, the invisibility -real or presumed- of the protagonists, etc. However, another form of literary representation of invisibility exists: in that form the condition of spectrality and the other features that have just been indicated do not refer to the canonical model of fantastic literature, but to a conceptual scheme in which the spectrum (understood as an “invisible being”) is only the projection of a mental and psychic state of imbalance that affects the characters.
In the present study, dedicated to the analysis of two contemporary Latin American novels (El exilio según Nicolás, from the Uruguayan Gabriel Peveroni, and Perro de ojos negros, from the Peruvian María José Caro) we will analyze three aspects related to this paradigm shift: a) the choice of closed and claustrophobic spaces (apartments, rooms, etc.) as main scenarios of representation; b) the presence in the fiction of some threatening element, whose nature at first looks ambiguous, and whose origin actually lies in an alteration of the psychic dimension of the observer-character; c) the fact that the protagonists of fiction themselves become human beings that perceive themselves as invisible and spectral.
This transformation reflects a condition in which the individual subject becomes a ghost in the face of the social context, as a projection of a certain weakness of his mind. It means, therefore, that there are no longer enchanted houses or fearsome monsters: everything comes from a disturbed glances of the main character or the narrator-witness. It means that we will approach our study using tools such as the theory of perception (Merleau-Ponty) or the theoretical approaches of Zygmunt Bauman, Gilles Lipovetsky or Paula Sibilia.
Abstract: Based on the theories of classical psychoanalysis and the Frankfurt School, the aim of this paper is to study the book The Flowers of Evil by Charles Baudelaire as an allegory of a historical and social system that is presented as hostile, based on the description of the city populated with miseries, ruins of an ancient splendor, as a suffocating and criminal atmosphere. Through the study of its poetic images this work shows an embodiment of a deep individual dissatisfaction given by the requirement of renunciation to the instinctive satisfactions that, as manhood moves away from a form of natural existence, emerge under the shape of violence.
Abstract: This paper analyses some theoretical aspects concerning Bergson’s philosophy of life creation. Mostly relying on the contributions by Rocco Ronchi, this work suggests a new and supplemental interpretation of the relationship which links the virtuality of élan vital to the actuality of matter and materiality in Bergson’s Creative Evolution.
Abstract: This essay aims at investigating the concept of doulopolis, since it seems to be contradictory: ancient attestations (mainly proverbs) declare it is not possible that a city of slaves really exists but, along with this, they also attest some occurrences of cities inhabited only by slaves. Importance will be paid to Aristotle’s thought (often neglected on doulopolis by scientific literature), since a polis is not only a settlement of people but a community that aspires to be happy (eudaimon). As a result, in this axiological view of what a polis is, a city of slaves would not be a real city and a real doulopolis does not exist as polis but only as an agglomerate.
Abstract: 1 gunshot is not a war, 2 gunshots are not a war… are 1 million gunshots a war? There is no such thing so investigated as war and, at the same time, still so outcasted theoretically. Ambiguity, vagueness and logical conundrums lay unsolved in the very hardcore of the several theories that considered war from a general perspective and, then, philosophically committed explicitly or implicitly. It is not the experience and observational data we lack but the general ability to generalize and expand our knowledge beyond what we can directly observe empirically and historically. Sorites arguments are everywhere in war theories: vagueness and ambiguities of many shapes inform the literature. Only a philosophical account of war can solve some of those issues: an ontology of war is needed to bring light into the heart of darkness.
Abstract: Étienne Gilson and Augusto Del Noce are two of the most important christian philosophers of the Twentieth century. Their common interests mainly concern the status of Christian philosophy, the gnoseological realism and the metaphysics of being. Starting from their correspondence, affinities and divergences come forth on important theoretical plexuses and an attempt is made to trace a common interpretation of Modernity. Del Noce’s ambivalent judgment on Descartes, the father of philosophical modernity, is the most problematic issue that distances itself from the perspective of the French philosopher. Indeed, Gilson considers Descartes the initiator of the rationalist and idealistic line of Modernity. This line cannot find any synthesis with the metaphysics of being, which has a realistic dimension. For Del Noce, on the other hand, beside this direction, there is a process that is not closed to the transcendence, marking in fact the experience of a different modernity. Representatives of such currents are identified in Malebranche, Vico, Rosmini. In this line, it is not hard to include Gilson’s philosophy as a significant alternative to idealism and above all to the philosophy of Giovanni Gentile, considered the culminating point of rationalism. The presentation, in fact, of an existential Thomism, operated thanks to the studies of the French philosopher – beyond his intentions – can open significant connections between the metaphysics of being and the orientation of religious existentialism. Alongside more purely philosophical nodes in this framework, more contingent knots also emerge: the dialogue between Catholics and communists, the understanding of the phenomenon of atheism and the judgment on the anti-metaphysical perspective of the years following the Second Vatican Council.
Abstract: L’assenza di un equivalente del verbo ‘essere’ indoeuropeo in lingua araba, in particolare della copula e di una corrispondenza completa delle flessioni temporali del verbo ‘essere’, pone problemi di ordine ontologico oltre che linguistico. La resa del verbo ‘essere’ nella traduzione di un testo indoeuropeo in lingua araba è dunque oggetto di numerose discrepanze. La lingua araba ricorre a sinonimi, equivalenti, perifrasi e traduzioni complesse per poter esprimere un equivalente di ‘essere’. La traduzione di espressioni quali è, non è, essere, c’è, essente, etc., non si ottiene coniugando e flettendo un verbo ‘essere’ arabo, ma è necessario ricorrere a verbi diversi, particelle, pronomi ed elementi che nulla hanno a che vedere con un verbo ‘essere’ inteso in senso indoeuropeo. Le traduzioni in lingua araba degli scritti di Aristotele pongono dunque numerosi problemi traduttivi ed interpretativi che coinvolgono analisi linguistica e riflessione sulla reale equivalenza o meno dei discorsi ontologici. Per comprendere la resa del verbo ‘essere’ nelle traduzioni arabe di Aristotele ed i problemi ontologici ad essa collegati, si analizza dapprima la definizione che Aristotele dà di verbo nel De interpretatione, per poi analizzare la traduzione in italiano, greco ed arabo del capitolo 3 (16b 6-25). Si affronta poi un secondo caso studio analizzando un passo delle Categorie (Cat., 3, 1 b 10-15). Si espone in particolare una raccolta di tutte le rese del verbo ‘essere’ in lingua araba con particolare riferimento a casi studio tratti dalle traduzioni arabe di Aristotele di Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn.
Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate that the concept of responsibility (Verantwortungsbegriff) it is always indispensable in the ethical and political field. Responsibility is founded on the human freedom to choose good and evil, and therefore I have tried to argue favour of a philosophy of freedom, which is the theoretical basis of a socially inspired liberalism. Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism in the United States, and left liberalism in Germany) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a regulated free market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights.
Abstract: Within the literary production of Alberto Blest Gana (1830-1920), the novel Martín Rivas, published as a serial-story in the Santiago newspaper La voz de Chile between May and July 1862, analyze a key motive of the Chilean narrative, which is repeated –even if with different nuances– from the first manifestations of realism to the so-called “literature of decrepitude” well into the sixties of the twentieth century. We are alluding to the representation of dichotomous separation between social classes through the description of physical spaces inhabited and used by citizens. The novel, whose full title is Martín Rivas. Novel of political and social customs, shows the will of its author to describe all the components of the national social mosaic and to represent the hierarchical structure in force in the mid-twentieth century. Our objective is to highlight how Blest Gana uses the description of the social landscape of the urban environment of Santiago as an instrument to reflect the binarism that opposes “those from above” to “those from below”, through two axes of the capital topography. On the one hand, the author suggests a first opposition related to the interior social landscapes: the one facing the lavish halls of the rich bourgeoisie (for which the author often uses the term “aristocracy”) to the humble abodes of the class defined as medio pelo (intermediate social class standing between the high bourgeoisie and the popular class). On the other hand, the novel reflects a second opposition related to the external social landscapes: it presents the different modes and uses of appropriation that the two classes make of the public spaces (especially the parks) destined to the representation of parties and ceremonies.