Abstract: The main purpose of this essay is to show how Benedetto Croce’s historical method is founded on his conception of dialectics. The so-called “reform” of Hegelian dialectics essentially lies in Croce’s interpretation of the “Phenomenology of the Spirit.” In this paper, I show how Croce’s construction of the historical method is in close relationship with the construction of his philosophical system, namely a “dialectic of the distinct activities of the human spirit.” The Italian philosopher divides mental activity first into the theoretical and the practical, and then into 4 further divisions: Aesthetic (driven by beauty), Logic (subject to truth), Economics (concerned with what is useful), and Ethics (bound to the good). Following the studies of some significant interpreters (Eugenio Garin, Gennaro Sasso, Fulvio Tessitore and Giuseppe Galasso), I conclude that Croce’s dialectics is an essential element to understand his philosophical system and his historical method, which are closely connected. I think that historiography is always (and should be) necessarily connected to a specific philosophical vision.
Abstract: In this paper we wish to deal with the comparison between the conceptions about the nature of relations offered by Ludwig Wittgenstein, Francis Herbert Bradley and Bertrand Russell. The basic idea is that Bradley’s thesis that the notion of proposition is self-contradictory is correct, and that Wittgenstein suggests a useful insight to develop an interesting answer to the problem. Our view is that we can distinguish two approaches: 1) if we define the proposition as a dialectical structure, then we need to consider as dialectical and contradictory also the relationship between different subject’s points of view; 2) if we define the proposition in a not dialectical way, we can describe the relationship between different points of view as not intrinsecally contradictory.
Abstract: Starting from the analysis of some uses of the concepts of ‘crisis’ and ‘conflicts’ (which work as key-concepts in Paul Ricoeur’s “philosophy of the limit”) we grasp an intertwined relationship between the historical and critical dimension of modernity on the one hand, and the psychological and sociological dimension concerning human emancipation on the other. Ricoeur’s philosophy of the ‘capable human being’ reveals how human identity is dialectically connected with historical and social progress, and reversibly, how human’s emancipation influences the life world in terms of social progress. To overcome the limits constitutes the key-passage for human emancipation as well as for social progress.
Abstract: In this article, we want to analyse the so-called transhumanist theory and its impact on the modernity and the man’s life. We will therefore point out how transhumainst practicals can influence everyday life. This study concerns three mains points: we will present the modern situation with regard of these theories, their impact on the conception of the maternity and lastly we will analyse the case of these theories applied to reproduction.
Abstract: Il profondo senso in cui l’identità della cosa con se stessa e dell’Io con se stesso sia una sorta di duplicità, e quale sia il ruolo questa duplicità dell’identità costituisce il tema a cui è dedicato questo articolo. Partendo dal concetto platonico dello heteron tou herou e della sua specifica interpretazione hegeliana per cui l’altro in se stesso è l’altro di se stesso e quindi l’altro dell’altro, intendiamo mostrare come questo principio logico, ontologico e semantico, che unisce strettamente l’identità e la differenza, nei suoi diversi significati della identità numerica o della cosa singola con se stessa, distinta perciò dall’identità del genere e della specie, possa essere applicato al rapporto personale dalla coscienza con l’autocoscienza, quindi al rapporto sociale del riconoscimento, e a quello etico e politico. É l’alterità che l’Io scopre all’interno di se stesso, come rapporto originario del Sé (Selbst) individuale a quello universale, e di soggetto agente e paziente, che porta al superamento dell’alterità dell’altro, tanto da riuscire a vedere non l’altro da se stesso, ma l’altro di se stesso, il suo stesso altro, che è però non semplicemente un rapporto dialogico di domanda e risposta, di comprensione e di dialogo, ma di accettazione dell’altro che è la piena realizzazione di noi stessi
Abstract: This article analyzes Nietzsche’s critique of the metaphysical concept of freedom throughout his works, from Human, All Too Human (1878) to On the Genealogy of Morality (1887) and Twilight of the Idols (1888). It argues that, in criticizing the metaphysical concept of freedom, Nietzsche aims to target the metaphysical concept of substance that lies at its core. Substance is Nietzsche’s real target: while declaring men free, metaphysics actually makes them unfree by conceiving of them as substantial beings. Men are regarded as an unchanging essence, a substance with fixed intentions, from which actions emerge independently from each other in a kind of creatio ex nihilo. In light of its substantial conception of men’s being, metaphysics deprives men of the freedom to develop their character, personality and ultimately of the freedom to become masters of their own destiny.
Abstract: After a brief introduction about the problem of leopardian sources, I wish to introduce here a description of the diffusion of Addison’s theories about the Imagination in Italy at the time of Leopardi, trying to highlight their influence on his thinking and his philosophy. The third chapter is dedicated to the analysis of an important excerpt of the Zibaldone where Leopardi quotes Addison and his Catone to introduce an interesting reflection about the pleasure of beauty and the role of imagination, almost as a way to face Addison issues. This excerpt represents an occasion to compare the theories of Addison and Leopardi about Aesthetics and also the similarities and the differences between them. The last part of the paper is dedicated to the results of the analysis and the conclusions.
Abstract: The thesis of the article is to explain how space is a constructed theory and not a substantive object. The space is not absolute, is not a place where there are bodies, but is a human construction from the extentions of bodies. Due to bodies are spaciously, we can configurete space like their relations. Its geometry structure is a rational construction above this metaphysical and fundamental spatial relation. But thise is not the same as Kant, it is like Zubiri: space is a construction above a metaphysical structure of bodies respectivety, not a pure form of our human structure. It is a rational construction, not intuitive, not from sensibility, but a construction beyond all percepcion: it is a postulation.
Abstract: Within the literary production of Alberto Blest Gana (1830-1920), the novel Martín Rivas, published as a serial-story in the Santiago newspaper La voz de Chile between May and July 1862, analyze a key motive of the Chilean narrative, which is repeated –even if with different nuances– from the first manifestations of realism to the so-called “literature of decrepitude” well into the sixties of the twentieth century. We are alluding to the representation of dichotomous separation between social classes through the description of physical spaces inhabited and used by citizens. The novel, whose full title is Martín Rivas. Novel of political and social customs, shows the will of its author to describe all the components of the national social mosaic and to represent the hierarchical structure in force in the mid-twentieth century. Our objective is to highlight how Blest Gana uses the description of the social landscape of the urban environment of Santiago as an instrument to reflect the binarism that opposes “those from above” to “those from below”, through two axes of the capital topography. On the one hand, the author suggests a first opposition related to the interior social landscapes: the one facing the lavish halls of the rich bourgeoisie (for which the author often uses the term “aristocracy”) to the humble abodes of the class defined as medio pelo (intermediate social class standing between the high bourgeoisie and the popular class). On the other hand, the novel reflects a second opposition related to the external social landscapes: it presents the different modes and uses of appropriation that the two classes make of the public spaces (especially the parks) destined to the representation of parties and ceremonies.
Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate that the concept of responsibility (Verantwortungsbegriff) it is always indispensable in the ethical and political field. Responsibility is founded on the human freedom to choose good and evil, and therefore I have tried to argue favour of a philosophy of freedom, which is the theoretical basis of a socially inspired liberalism. Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism in the United States, and left liberalism in Germany) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a regulated free market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights.