Abstract: 1 gunshot is not a war, 2 gunshots are not a war… are 1 million gunshots a war? There is no such thing so investigated as war and, at the same time, still so outcasted theoretically. Ambiguity, vagueness and logical conundrums lay unsolved in the very hardcore of the several theories that considered war from a general perspective and, then, philosophically committed explicitly or implicitly. It is not the experience and observational data we lack but the general ability to generalize and expand our knowledge beyond what we can directly observe empirically and historically. Sorites arguments are everywhere in war theories: vagueness and ambiguities of many shapes inform the literature. Only a philosophical account of war can solve some of those issues: an ontology of war is needed to bring light into the heart of darkness.
Abstract: This essay aims at investigating the concept of doulopolis, since it seems to be contradictory: ancient attestations (mainly proverbs) declare it is not possible that a city of slaves really exists but, along with this, they also attest some occurrences of cities inhabited only by slaves. Importance will be paid to Aristotle’s thought (often neglected on doulopolis by scientific literature), since a polis is not only a settlement of people but a community that aspires to be happy (eudaimon). As a result, in this axiological view of what a polis is, a city of slaves would not be a real city and a real doulopolis does not exist as polis but only as an agglomerate.
Abstract: This paper analyses some theoretical aspects concerning Bergson’s philosophy of life creation. Mostly relying on the contributions by Rocco Ronchi, this work suggests a new and supplemental interpretation of the relationship which links the virtuality of élan vital to the actuality of matter and materiality in Bergson’s Creative Evolution.
Abstract: Based on the theories of classical psychoanalysis and the Frankfurt School, the aim of this paper is to study the book The Flowers of Evil by Charles Baudelaire as an allegory of a historical and social system that is presented as hostile, based on the description of the city populated with miseries, ruins of an ancient splendor, as a suffocating and criminal atmosphere. Through the study of its poetic images this work shows an embodiment of a deep individual dissatisfaction given by the requirement of renunciation to the instinctive satisfactions that, as manhood moves away from a form of natural existence, emerge under the shape of violence.
Abstract: The tradition of fantastic literature and ghost stories has been built, over the two and a half centuries that separate us from the publication of Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764), on the basis of the presence of a set of prototypical elements of the genre: the nocturnal and/or gloomy atmospheres, the almost permanent darkness, the death of some of the key characters of the story, the invisibility -real or presumed- of the protagonists, etc. However, another form of literary representation of invisibility exists: in that form the condition of spectrality and the other features that have just been indicated do not refer to the canonical model of fantastic literature, but to a conceptual scheme in which the spectrum (understood as an “invisible being”) is only the projection of a mental and psychic state of imbalance that affects the characters.
In the present study, dedicated to the analysis of two contemporary Latin American novels (El exilio según Nicolás, from the Uruguayan Gabriel Peveroni, and Perro de ojos negros, from the Peruvian María José Caro) we will analyze three aspects related to this paradigm shift: a) the choice of closed and claustrophobic spaces (apartments, rooms, etc.) as main scenarios of representation; b) the presence in the fiction of some threatening element, whose nature at first looks ambiguous, and whose origin actually lies in an alteration of the psychic dimension of the observer-character; c) the fact that the protagonists of fiction themselves become human beings that perceive themselves as invisible and spectral.
This transformation reflects a condition in which the individual subject becomes a ghost in the face of the social context, as a projection of a certain weakness of his mind. It means, therefore, that there are no longer enchanted houses or fearsome monsters: everything comes from a disturbed glances of the main character or the narrator-witness. It means that we will approach our study using tools such as the theory of perception (Merleau-Ponty) or the theoretical approaches of Zygmunt Bauman, Gilles Lipovetsky or Paula Sibilia.
Abstract: This paper maps the parallel construction of space and identity in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, a play in which geographical spaces clearly acquire semantic and symbolic value. The interactions between these radically opposed topographical spaces and the characters who inhabit them are key to an insightful geocritical reading of characterisation within play. Rome is a place of politics, power and progress while Egypt is characterized by opulence, luxury and pleasure – Octavia and Cleopatra, embody these places. The construction of Antony, through his inhabitation of these parallel spaces and his relationships with these women and the places they represent, both as limen and limes, sheds new light on the play as a whole.
Il 29 settembre 2017 a Roma, presso la Sala conferenze della Camera dei Deputati, si è svolto un convegno dal titolo “Ragione e prassi. Nel decennale della beatificazione di Antonio Rosmini”. Riassumiamo alcune tra le riflessioni più significative emerse nel corso della giornata di studi.