La complessità e il suo metodo. La dialettica in Platone

This entry is part 3 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: This article intends to show that Plato’s dialectic is a paradigm of complexity. Firstly, it is an approach to reality which is a whole structured in two communicating parts, the sensitive and the intelligible sphere therefore Ideas work as mediators; they are the principle of order of phenomenal plurality. Furthermore, each being is a mix composed of peras and apeiron; it is organized according to a systematic logic; sure enough, it is a whole composed by an endless multiplicity of parts: it is a “orderly disorder”. In addition it is inserted into a set of positive links which mean connection; it is also part of negative links of exclusion, all determined from the pervasiveness of the diversity; this is the reason because only two different objects can be related. Therefore to understand the several sides of the reality, without simplifying it, Plato uses a flexible method, through synopsis and diairesis. Both analyze the being to identify the structure and constitutive elements. In general terms, the paradigm opts for a multifocal approach that for the focus change, which the analysis is carried out, it involves the multiplication of the interpretative chart. They are good in case they give back an aspect of the object already examined. Moreover even if the survey is theoretically infinite, for the presence of apeiron in the real composition, it does not imply a living up from the outset but rather the perseverance in seeking the truth. For Plato, briefly, philosophy and dialectic coincide each other.

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Dialettica e politica da Platone ad Aristotele: il ruolo dell’endossalità nella scienza politica aristotelica

This entry is part 4 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: On the basis of the definition of Dialectic given by Aristotle in Topics I, 1, endoxality turns out to be a problem that must be placed at the center of attention by scholars.
Through a survey of the characterizations of the endoxa given in the books I and VIII of the Topics and of the use of the endoxic propositions in the Aristotle’s political works, I would like to show that, according to Aristotle, political endoxa are not to be considered exclusively as “thought shared by the majority of the population”, but also as “opinion of the man of value” (the spoudaios or the phronimos), which constitutes the canon for the political choice and action, and therefore the most reliable source of judgments truthful.
This characterization of endoxality in Aristotelian philosophy is what allows us to understand the difference between the endoxa of Aristotle and the Platonic evaluation of simple political doxai.

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La «dialettica trascendentale» e la «dialettica naturale» della ragion pura

This entry is part 5 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: Transcendental dialectic is not the art of producing dogmatically illusion, but a critique of understanding and reason in regard to their «hyperphysical use». Transcendental dialectic is the endeavour of exposing the illusion involved in attempting to use the categories and principles of the understanding beyond the bounds of phenomena and possible experience. «All our knowledge begins with sense, proceeds thence to understanding, and ends with reason». Reason is both a logical and a transcendental faculty. As a logical faculty, it produces so-called mediated conclusions through abstractions, as a transcendental faculty, it creates conceptions and contains a priori cognitions whose object cannot be given empirically. Our reason has a structural and natural tendency to move beyond the realm of experience into the unknowable. Whenever reason attempts to move beyond possible experience, it falls into error and illusion. Transcendental illusions are not causal, but natural: they are neither dependent on the will not avoidable. The transcendental dialectics is a critique of such illusions. It aims to show the limits and transgressions of reason in order to avoid unscientific conclusions and guard against metaphysical dogmatism.

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Peircean transcendental dialectic: A tentative sketch of an absent feature in Peirce’s deconstruction of Kant’s transcendental philosophy

This entry is part 6 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: Though Peirce’s “critical reconstruction” of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason didn’t concern Kant’s “Transcendental Dialectic”, it is for both logical and contingent reasons not unreasonable to speculate about a Peircean “transcendental dialectic”. In this essay, I will first outline Peirce’s early account of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, in order to suggest an explanation as to why Peirce’s “critical reconstruction” of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason didn’t concern Kant’s “Transcendental Dialectic”. I will then summarize Peirce’s “critical reconstruction” of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, in order to lay the ground for a tentative sketch of a Peircean “transcendental dialectic”. On this ground, I will finally sketch a “transcendental dialectic” articulated in terms of the system of categories that Peirce identified as a result of his critique of Kant’s system.

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Dialettiche hegeliane: la logica affermativa del concetto e il suo significato politico

This entry is part 7 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: Hegel’s conception of dialectics is much more complex and differentiated than normally supposed. The article considers the basic conditions of the Hegelian dialectics, the becoming and the determined being, and the different forms of dialectics which are present in the Science of Logic. In particular, it focuses on the difference between a negative and a positive conception of dialectics in which the antithetical moment is overcome by means of sublation. This allows the transition to the affirmative dialectic of the concept, which is inquired about its capacity to produce an articulated and self-relating structure and to feature through its logical development the political organization of the state.

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Per una “dialettica della trascendenza”: cristologia e storia nelle Predigten di Schleiermacher sulla Confessione di Augusta

This entry is part 8 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: The ten sermns on the Confession of August they were kept from Schleiermacher, between the June and the November of 1830, on the occasion of the third centennial of the presentation to the emperor Carlo V of the Confession of August, where he confirmed that ecclesiastical communities, constitute in the German territory following the Reform of I will Lute, they didn’t remove at all him from the dogmatic trinitarian and cristologica of the ancient Church. For Schleiermacher, instead, the document of August it enacts the resumption of the process of spiritual liberation begun by Christ, and is goes lost during the time. Christ is the center, the heart, of the dialectical athletic contest between man and God, and between man and world. The Gospel of Christ enters the world and valorizes the human experience beyond all the forms of thought and to the human experience beyond the same confessional orthodoxies. This contribution intends to proceed in the following way: after a brief historical panning on the Confession of August and the motives that have conducted the preacher of Breslavia to hold well ten sermons on it, we will analyze the content of the sermons and their principal themes, which have as base the whole figure of Christ, the Savior and his/her message. Just the Christ, as Urbild, in comparison to himself and to Vorbild and we, in comparison to us and to our imitatio, it will be to the center of a further reflection that he/she tightly sees connected to the sermons the great systematic work of Schleiermacher: the Glaubenslehre.

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La dialettica del “Nulla assoluto”. La ricezione di Hegel nella “Scuola di Kyoto”

This entry is part 9 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: This paper intends to outline the reception of Hegelian dialectic by the Kyoto School. At the same time, it highlights how this Japanese School has tried to integrate the Hegelian perspective introducing new dialectical systems that have the “absolute nothingness” as their starting point.

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Negazione radicale e polemica anti-hegeliana nel «giovane» e nel «vecchio» Bakunin

This entry is part 10 of 38 in the series Vol 4-2019

Abstract: This work aims to analyze analogies and divergences, origin and discontinuity between Bakunin’s political thought and Hegel’s dialectic. «Radical negation» will be the main category of reference for Bakunin; in particular, by observing differences with so-called law of «the negation of the negation» from hegelian-marxist tradition. The same structure of this essay is conceived in a dialectic-way alternating, with speculative insights, deductions of political philosophy. Hegels’s works, that are examined, are Science of logic and Elements of the Philosophy of right

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