Abstract: How many possibilities we have to say the truth about the physical reality? I think that it is one of the most interesting questions in the XXI century. Scientists use words like ‘possible worlds’, ‘parallel universes’ and ‘multiverse’. The threshold of knowledge in physical sciences seems to go to a new statute: the probable, like a border which not divide the absolute truth by the contingency of reality, but represent the interlude between the mathematical and geometrical world and factual truth. This idea was addressed in the philosophy of XVII century. We can found in Leibniz’s thoughts a particular vision about the Truth. He formulated the famous distinction between Truths of Reason and Truth of Fact. The first are eternal elements and they are caused by themselves, they are characterized by absolute necessity. The elements of factual reality are corruptible and prone to changes, they are characterized by hypothetical necessity. The only way to say the truth in factual reality is to deplete all of substance attributes, but it is impossible. The mathematic and geometric application on reality is not enough for a perfect knowledge of human and physical events. I think that in the Leibniz’s philosophy we can stipulate a threshold of Probable that represents the current touch point between the mathematical truth and the limit of empirical observations.
Abstract: Transcendental dialectic is not the art of producing dogmatically illusion, but a critique of understanding and reason in regard to their «hyperphysical use». Transcendental dialectic is the endeavour of exposing the illusion involved in attempting to use the categories and principles of the understanding beyond the bounds of phenomena and possible experience. «All our knowledge begins with sense, proceeds thence to understanding, and ends with reason». Reason is both a logical and a transcendental faculty. As a logical faculty, it produces so-called mediated conclusions through abstractions, as a transcendental faculty, it creates conceptions and contains a priori cognitions whose object cannot be given empirically. Our reason has a structural and natural tendency to move beyond the realm of experience into the unknowable. Whenever reason attempts to move beyond possible experience, it falls into error and illusion. Transcendental illusions are not causal, but natural: they are neither dependent on the will not avoidable. The transcendental dialectics is a critique of such illusions. It aims to show the limits and transgressions of reason in order to avoid unscientific conclusions and guard against metaphysical dogmatism.
Abstract: This paper explores some aspects of Carnap’s and Popper’s intellectual relationship focusing on Carnap’s appreciation of Popper’s critique of historicism which the Austrian philosopher developed in several contributions. The article also presents Carnap’s questioning about the Popper’s political and economic orientation suggesting that tha latter could implies a critical form of socialist society which firmly distanciate on the one end from radical forms of capitalism on the other and from the religious trust in socialism.