Abstract: this paper deals with my approach to the Personalism, a philosophical tradition that in Italy had a particular political dimension. I underline as Antonio Rosmini founded a “liberal Personalism.” Rosmini’s philosophy of person is a philosophy of freedom with deep metaphysical, ethical and political connections. In his thought it is central the definition of human person as “subsistent right and very essence of right.” Rosmini’s view of “person”, seen as an inviolable end which can never be reduced to the status of “means”, leads spontaneously to what today is seen as paramount in human existence, that is, the question of human rights. In this paper, I underline the reasons for the actuality of this philosophy based on the concepts of person and liberty: in particular, I put in evidence as the Italian philosopher of the 20th century – Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989) – elaborated the fundamental ideas of Rosmini on the ontological dignity of the human being, and gave an original interpretation of the modern secular age. Departing from Rosmini he criticized the totalitarianism and he proposed a political liberalism founded on the respect of the constitutive liberties of person. In the last part of this paper I analyze the problems of multiculturalism and ethical relativism: in the dignity of the human being we can find an “overlapping consensus”.
Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate that the concept of responsibility (Verantwortungsbegriff) it is always indispensable in the ethical and political field. Responsibility is founded on the human freedom to choose good and evil, and therefore I have tried to argue favour of a philosophy of freedom, which is the theoretical basis of a socially inspired liberalism. Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism in the United States, and left liberalism in Germany) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a regulated free market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights.
Abstract: In this paper it is analyzed Paul Ricoeur’s critical comparison with Freud. We have highlighted that the psychoanalysis is interpreted as “archeology of the subject”, and as “hermeneutics of the human condition”. In particular, we have considered Ricoeur’s work of 1965 Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation, first edited in 1965. According to Ricoeur, Freudian psychoanalysis is a form of determinism: the human action is essentially explained on the basis of an unconscious and primordial mind. In this perspective, man is not completely free: Éros, thánatos, and anánke determin the human agency. In opposition to Freudian psychoanalysis, Ricoeur proposes a teleological conception of human action. He develops a “philosophy of freedom”, and a hermeneutics of the subject based on human capabilities. In the last part of our paper, we have analyzed the great work Oneself as Another (1990), in which Ricoeur deals with the problem of selfhood in the context of contemporary discussions of “otherness.” We have particularly underlined that Ricoeur’s intention is to develop a complex ontology of homo capax. According to the French philosopher, to exist is to act: speaking, doing, telling, and assuming responsibility for the act commetted. The very “being” of human beings is to act and the effort to be. In this perspective, the human interiority is considered as dynamic production (enérgeia, conatus). Being as act and potentiality, accordingly, is the dominant meta-category that governs Ricoeur’s philosphical anthropology.