Abstract: Cyber technologies are believed to have reconfigured the way humans interpret themselves, as they changed routines, habits and mindsets that make up our lives. These tendencies lead to a growing conviction that humans can fulfil Nietzschean ideal and become overmen if they unfold the whole transformative potential of cyber technologies. This essay is a response to such claims. It addresses a growing assertion that cyber technologies necessitate philosophical re-interpretation of what humans are and what they ought to become. First, the study examines the capacity of cyber technologies to transform philosophical boundaries between well-established and separable categories like mind and matter, quantity and quality, and war and peace. To this end, case studies of brain-computer interfaces, big data and cyberwarfare were taken to practically test the assumption about philosophical limitations to cyber technologies. Then, the study relates these finding to the ideas behind transhumanism and examines whether cyber technologies can facilitate human transcendence into post-human entities boasting AI-enhanced intelligence and abilities. Finally, the essay concludes that there are substantial ontological, epistemological and dialectical obstacles to the transcendence of humans into technology, which is why philosophical interpretation of a human being should still be built on conventional, rather than cyber-related, premises.
Abstract: The ten sermns on the Confession of August they were kept from Schleiermacher, between the June and the November of 1830, on the occasion of the third centennial of the presentation to the emperor Carlo V of the Confession of August, where he confirmed that ecclesiastical communities, constitute in the German territory following the Reform of I will Lute, they didn’t remove at all him from the dogmatic trinitarian and cristologica of the ancient Church. For Schleiermacher, instead, the document of August it enacts the resumption of the process of spiritual liberation begun by Christ, and is goes lost during the time. Christ is the center, the heart, of the dialectical athletic contest between man and God, and between man and world. The Gospel of Christ enters the world and valorizes the human experience beyond all the forms of thought and to the human experience beyond the same confessional orthodoxies. This contribution intends to proceed in the following way: after a brief historical panning on the Confession of August and the motives that have conducted the preacher of Breslavia to hold well ten sermons on it, we will analyze the content of the sermons and their principal themes, which have as base the whole figure of Christ, the Savior and his/her message. Just the Christ, as Urbild, in comparison to himself and to Vorbild and we, in comparison to us and to our imitatio, it will be to the center of a further reflection that he/she tightly sees connected to the sermons the great systematic work of Schleiermacher: the Glaubenslehre.
Abstract: The paper proposes an unusual approach to Heidegger and Sartre, showing a resonance in the way both thinkers radically reinterpret one of the most important requirements for the phenomenological method: the Epoché (phenomenological reduction). The comparison I suggest between Heidegger’s and Sartre’s critique, or raising of the Epoché is particularly interesting, considering the historical and political opposition between the two philosophers. And thus despite, or maybe even because of the fact that the relation between thought and action is not alien but fundamental to the question about the primary meaning of the existence in the phenomenological inquiry – which is the question of the Epoché. The radicalization of the Epoché concerns narrowly the meaning of the subject’s existence in its historicity and facticity, which Husserl, in both Heidegger’s and Sartre’s views, seems to have not considered deeply enough in order to grasp the pure field of subjectivity. On this common path of disagreement with Husserl, Heidegger and Sartre develop different ways to come to term with it. To both, Husserl´s theoretical premise of the reduction seems to be the last repetition of the metaphysical prejudice against the importance of affects for the philosophical thinking. Heidegger does not refuse a sort of specific attitude as premise of the phenomenological method, he argues, however, that it must implicate and not suspend the facticity of the subject. With his conception of an event character of the Stimmung, which Heidegger elaborates after the publication of Sein und Zeit until the Beiträge and Besinnung, he radically reinterprets Husserl´s phenomenological reduction, without removing its temporal existential implication. Sartre too sees in the affect one and maybe the only possible trasformation of the Epoché. This happens already in his first philosophical essay, La transcendance de l´ego. But, Heidegger rethinks the reduction through the semantic field of Stimmung (mood), tracing the polysemy of the verb stimmen as root of Stimmung and of Stimme (voice). Sartre, on the contrary, considers the régard (gaze) as a fulfilled reduction, which delimitates the horizont of the phenomenality.